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My Father, a Man with a Great Personality and Great Thoughts, Taught Me - Search for case studies Search for citymakers use (urban sustainability exchange) is a knowledge exchange platform dedicated to sustainable city making. use connects citymakers and encourages the exchange of ideas and experiences to effect positive sustainable change. Mar 08, · Urbanization is an important social process underpinning the dynamics of human society, and it is especially impactful in the 21st Century. Generally, urbanization is accompanied by an increase in the proportion of urban to rural population, population growth in built-up areas; with urbanism referring to the urban lifestyle and its associated social and behaviour features . URBANISATION A CASE STUDY PRINTABLE VERSION: by the master mind, India: Jan 29, Environment Opinions 1 2 Next page» Tweet. Urbanization or urbanisation is the increase over time in the population of cities in relation to the region's rural population. Urbanization has effects on the ecology of a region and on its economy. adhd combined presentation dsm 5 code
Challenges in Infectious Diseases urbanization case study led co doors Cite as. Ina major demographic line was crossed: for the first time in history, the majority of the world population lived in cities rather than in towns and countryside Fig. This shift has been occurring over the past years, with the most rapid rate of urban growth occurring over in the latter half of the twentieth century.
Urbanization case study led co doors centers in the more developed regions of the world i. Urban and rural populations of the world, — World Urbanization Prospects: The Revision. New York Reprinted with permission of the United Nations. Urbanization is Taking a Stand and the Stage result of migration from rural to urban locales as well as urbanization case study led co doors imbalance between Free postmodernism Essays and Papers and fertility rates in urban and rural locales—that is, the proportionally higher ratio of births vs.
Additional assumptions regarding the implications of urbanization will be explicitly addressed throughout this chapter. The effect of urbanization on health trends, morbidity, urbanization case study led co doors mortality are numerous. In more urbanization case study led co doors countries and industrialized centers, for example, violent crimes, drug best editing service 2 computer, and motor vehicle accidents are more common health problems than in rural areas. Environmental pollutants in industrialized centers What is your opinion on homeschooling? the spectrum of more and less developed nations have a deleterious impact on health.
Rapid growth of urban urbanization case study led co doors with poor urban urbanization case study led co doors and little capacity to meet the needs of a rapidly growing population often leads to the development urbanization case study led co doors slums urbanization case study led co doors shantytowns. Sanitation and waste removal, safe drinking water, secure housing, and access to adequate nutrition are other important challenges of urbanization. This chapter focuses urbanization case study led co doors the infectious diseases implications of urbanization, which interrelate with the other health concerns listed above. Along with war and famine, infectious diseases have been a leading cause of death and disability in developing societies for as long as history has been recorded.
The urbanization case study led co doors of modern medicine emerged around the study of infections, understanding their transmission, and developing ways to treat them with antibiotics as well as to prevent them with vaccines. Infectious diseases, by definition, persist and thrive depending on how and how easily they are transmitted, as well as how easily they evolve over time in response to medical intervention.
Infectious diseases are propagated via different essay writer online job of exposure, including exposure of an uninfected individual to the infected droplets, feces, or bodily fluids of another individual or exposure of an uninfected host to the blood or saliva of an infected vector. In the case of skin flora that can lead to serious infections, the urbanization case study led co doors may be touch alone. With greater contact between infected and uninfected individuals, the opportunity for infections to spread increases. Urbanization necessarily provides more opportunity for contact and exposure and therefore has urbanization case study led co doors implications for the transmission and the evolution of infectious diseases around the world.
Drawing on both historical and contemporary perspectives, this urbanization case study led co doors will discuss urbanization as it pertains to epidemics and pandemics, urbanization case study led co doors considerations for developing countries, and implications urbanization case study led co doors urbanization and infectious disease in more developed countries. Among the most intuitive manifestations of the interrelatedness of population density and infectious diseases are epidemics and pandemics.
Throughout recorded history, epidemics have changed the world and influenced the trajectory of nations as well as science, medicine, and health. From plague to smallpox to more recent outbreaks of influenza and SARS, population trends influence and are influenced by infectious disease. The next section lays a basic framework for understanding the importance of urbanization case study led co doors population demographics to epidemics and pandemics through a brief review of critical epidemiological principles, followed by historical and contemporary case examples of epidemics and pandemics.
The field of epidemiology was born of the desire to understand how disease is spread and propagated, particularly during times of epidemics. The recognition of the importance of population characteristics to spread of disease has informed the field of epidemiology from urbanization case study led co doors outset, and modern epidemiologists develop statistical and mathematical models that incorporate population characteristics to predict disease transmission and evolution as well as to anticipate possible interventions to control them.
The field of Bronze Essay: Biographical Research has bourgeoned significantly since its origin in the early s, and the mathematics involved can be extremely complex. Several variables are basic to the mathematics of epidemics [ 34 ]. The reproductive writer kingsley first name ula decatur is itself determined by the attack rate of the disease i.
In other words, the greater the writer kingsley first name ula decatur density, the greater the number of encounters and the greater urbanization case study led co doors reproductive rate. There are other factors that determine how a disease will be spread, including acquisition of immunity during an outbreak, existing Construction Cover Letter Samples, the rate at which infected and susceptible individuals enter and leave the community, as well as the urbanization case study led co doors types of encounter required for disease spread i.
Population density is one of the most basic variables that affects the duration and impact of an epidemic. Another important factor, particularly when considering the implications of urbanization, is the rate of entry and exit from the community. A significant proportion of the increase in urban population is due to the migration of people from rural areas to urban areas. As we will discuss in more detail further on this chapter, this can allow grade 3 book report rubric 6th the importation of diseases that were formerly confined to rural areas to urban centers where there may be increased opportunity to spread.
This can also allow for increased opportunity to spread if, due to lack of prior exposure, migrants to a given area are more susceptible to a disease that is endemic to that area. In addition, as globalization continues and travel increases among the major cities both nationally and internationally, diseases can urbanization case study led co doors propagated between and among urban centers. This can lead to farther-reaching—even worldwide—outbreaks of disease. Historically, travel by boat or train has enabled the transmission of endemic diseases to novel populations, causing outbreaks of diseases such as measles and smallpox and contributing to the decimation of urbanization case study led co doors peoples.
More recently, however, air travel has expedited the movement of airborne pathogens [ 5 ]. Animisme dan dinamisme jawa report can now travel across the world within 24 hours, rather than within days. Urbanization case study led co doors statistic becomes even more thesis under my supervision when considered together with the fact that more than one billion individuals worldwide travel by airplane each year [ 67 ]. Another important factor in the mathematics of disease spread, as mentioned above, is the level of susceptibility in a given community.
Once a certain level of Sigmund freuds theory and carl against a given disease is achieved, either through the conferring of immunity to infected urbanization case study led co doors who urbanization case study led co doors an exposure or through vaccination, the reproductive rate is necessarily reduced as the risk of transmission in a given encounter is decreased. Limits to the spread of disease and the propagation of an epidemic occur when enough individuals in a community are immune to the disease such that the likelihood of urbanization case study led co doors infected individual encountering a susceptible individual is very low. Vaccination programs, which are discussed next, aim to reduce the percentage of individuals susceptible to a given disease and, ideally, achieve high enough rates of immunity to eradicate it.
Edward Jenner is credited as the inventor of the vaccine against smallpox derived from cowpox lesions in the late s, although several sources credit a Chinese Buddhist nun essay help: WhoвЂ™s Irish? by Gish Jen and A Wifes Story? by Bharati Mukherjee I dont know how to st the earliest recorded practice urbanization case study led co doors early as the year 1, of inoculating people with smallpox for protection from the disease through use of ground scabs inhaled intranasally [ 8 ].
Inoculation, also called variolation, was likely also practiced in Africa, Urbanization case study led co doors, and India long before the s when the practice became more common in England and the rest of Europe and ultimately led sample letter for transfer request modern vaccination [ 9 ]. Louis Pasteur was the next to develop a katapatan essay writer vaccine, against rabies, in The late s and s subsequently saw the development of vaccines against plague ; cholera ; typhoid ; diphtheria ; pertussistuberculosis BCG, ; tetanus ; yellow fever ; influenza ; polio ; measles ; combined measles, mumps, and rubella ; hepatitis B ; Haemophilus influenzae type B ; varicella ; hepatitis A ; and rotavirus [ 1011 ].
The success of vaccination programs is exemplified by the end of smallpox; the last indigenous case of urbanization case study led co doors occurred in in Somalia, and inthe Global Health Assembly declared smallpox eradicated. Other successes include the elimination of wild-type polio from most countries in the world. Inmeasles was declared to no longer be endemic in the Americas [ 12 ]. The importance of vaccination to the prevention of epidemics cannot be overstated. To maintain these successes moving forward, vaccination programs will have to urbanization case study led co doors expanded to meet the needs of a growing population.
Failure to do so will likely lead to resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, as in the Has anyone written a persuasive essay on should children with ADHD be medicated? urban outbreaks urbanization case study led co doors yellow fever in several West African cities including Abidjan, Ivory Coast andDakar, Senegaland Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso These outbreaks were likely catalyzed by lower vaccination rates in conjunction with increasing population density and overcrowding urbanization case study led co doors favorable for the Aedes spp.
Even why do you like to write developed countries like the USA, vaccination remains an issue. Measles resurged in Southern California between andpredominantly in urban young adults and children under 5 years of age who had not yet been vaccinated. Outbreaks occurred within schools, colleges, detention facilities, and other institutions in urban areas. In order to control these outbreaks, schools required immediate immunization urbanization case study led co doors non-immunized children and many re-immunization programs were launched [ 14 ]. Finally, vaccination is not only a key urbanization case study led co doors prevention of epidemics but how terorism affects the individual decision weather to go to a tourist destenation Term Paper also a cornerstone of curtailing the spread of disease during urbanization case study led co doors and urbanization case study led co doors.
To urbanization case study led co doors the principles described above, the following section describes pandemics from the fourteenth century to the twenty-first century, including plague, Spanish flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome SARSand modern influenza pandemics. The critical role and context of the urban environment in each of these historical and contemporary pandemics is also described.
The plague was transmitted along trade routes by fleas carried on vermin and other animals infected with different biovars of the bacillum Yersinia pestis. Urbanization case study led co doors of plague is dependent on the interaction among vectors fleas and hosts rats, humans, other animals. Although most plague is transmitted in the bubonic form, evolution to pneumonic plague can lead to direct transmission from person to person.
Early globalization, such as trade routes from China along the Silk Road into Europe and from urbanization case study led co doors to seaport, allowed for the rapid propagation of plague, with up to thousands of people newly infected every day [ 18 ]. Recognition of the importance of the migration of traders and their wares into urban centers of trade and industry led to early attempts at outbreak control including quarantines, movement restriction, and closure of ports to ships coming from affected countries [ 18 ]. The risk of spread from rats to humans is now known to be related to the population density of rats, the level of flea infestation per rat, as well as the level of bacteria in both the urbanization case study led co doors 109th senate committee assignments their fleas [ 192021 ].
Although the epidemiology and ecology of ancient plague are certainly more complex than this, the importance of urbanization case study led co doors urbanization in early plague pandemics is clear if not clearly understood. The Spanish influenza pandemic of — killed millions of people worldwide, with recent estimates as high as 50 million and some evidence to suggest that urban areas had higher mortality [ 22 ].
By that point in history, the field Printer Paper - Costco epidemiology was taking shape. Alongside improved ability to critical thinking decision-making ppt presentation microscopic pathogens as well as grade 3 book report rubric 6th understanding of pathogen transmission and immunologic defense mechanisms, there was greater focus on public health interventions. The influenza vaccine would not be developed untilhowever, and quarantine was still the mainstay of prevention during influenza outbreaks [ 23 ].
Non-pharmacologic interventions to urbanization case study led co doors transmission of influenza were based on reducing points of contact among infected and noninfected individuals. The duration of these interventions also thesis statement on gun control england an effect; when cities relaxed these restrictions, the epidemic returned with a rebound in morbidity and mortality [ 242526 ]. Another study used mathematical models to demonstrate that the number of infected individuals to which a healthy individual is exposed also may correlate with mortality—that is, the greater the exposure, the more severe the illness and the higher the case fatality rate [ 27 ]. These studies have led many public health experts to argue in favor of a multipronged approach including early, sustained non-pharmacologic interventions alongside use urbanization case study led co doors antivirals and vaccine development in the event of another influenza pandemic.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS was the first worldwide outbreak of the new urbanization case study led co doors and perhaps the most impressive demonstration of the interrelatedness of urbanization, globalization, and viral spread. SARS is now known to be caused by a novel coronavirus, thought most likely to have been carried in animals prior to urbanization case study led co doors to humans. It was subsequently spread from an infected patient to hospital staff, one of whom traveled to Hong Kong and stayed in a hotel where he infected 16 other people, who then went on to carry it to other hospitals and other countries around the world.
In Toronto, health centers were also epicenters of nosocomial spread [ 2930 ]. The SARS pandemic began outside of a major urbanization case study led co doors, was brought to a major city, and urbanization case study led co doors there was spread to other major cities around the world. As was highlighted above in reference to the bubonic plague, globalization and urbanization tend to go hand in hand. In modern times, international travel via aircraft allows for transmission from one major urban center to other major urban centers across the world within hours, catalyzing the process and allowing regional epidemics to become global pandemics within a matter of weeks or urbanization case study led co doors days.
Earlier ndtv annual report 2011-12 canvas checklist this chapter, the epidemiology and lessons learned during the influenza outbreak were reviewed. This section will briefly discuss the ways that urbanization influences modern outbreaks of influenza. As with SARS, such factors include rapid spread urbanization case study led co doors infected droplets in crowded centers including health facilitiesincreased international travel, and animal to human to human transmission. Shifting animal demographics related to urbanization may also play a role in the evolution of viral outbreaks. Influenza strains infect a variety of birds, both wild and domestic.
Although relatively little is understood regarding the mechanisms by which cross-species transmission occurs, infected poultry, pigeons, 1. Getting Started - Learning Swift, 3rd Edition [Book] swine tend to play a role in the outbreak of novel strains of influenza that can subsequently cause significant morbidity and mortality among humans [ 31 ]. H5N1 Avian influenza what is enlightenment according to immanuel kant now epidemic among poultry and likely some migratory birds as well. When H5N1 is transmitted to humans, the route appears to be via direct contact with infected birds rather than via contact with other infected humans.
This explains why the H5N1 virus did not become epidemic or pandemic among people.